Head and body length, 20-34 cm; tail, 32-40 cm
Rainforest of Brazil's eastern Atlantic coast
What do you get when you cross beauty and brains? The golden-headed lion tamarin. Its leonine mane is gorgeous, yes, but also practical—when the little monkey is threatened, the hairs stand erect to display aggression. Individuals communicate with one another via a complex repertoire of 17 vocalizations, each with a unique meaning. Active and cooperative, family groups forage in every nook and cranny with their long, clawed fingers. Living in the forest canopy, they are used to arboreal predators. More and more, however, humans are getting in their hair, destroying their habitat and capturing them for the illicit pet trade.